Friday, August 04, 2006

INTRODUCTION


Introduction
Theoretically, our research is founded on the works of Profs. Carolus Linnaeus and N.I.Vavilov.
Nikolai I. Vavilov is recognized as the foremost plant geographer, botanist and geneticist of this age. In the early 20th century, the world was yet unaware of the urgent necessity to protect the environments, and scientists thought little about gradual extinction of plant species. In fact, N.I. Vavilov was the first who understood the imperative of intensive plant collecting, studying and preservation, in spite of the hardest times he experienced in his life.

We have used the special methodology of the Vavilov Institute developed with regard to lupin (Kurlovich et al., 1990b).
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Many years of observing plants sown in various regions have enabled us to find out new regularities in the variability of characters depending on genetic features of the species and accessions, and also on ecological and agronomic conditions of their growth.
We have also disclosed new characters and their combinations, both taxonomically significant and genetically determined. This factor as well as generalization of the data obtained by other researchers (Zhukovsky, 1929; Kazimierski and Novacki, 1961; Gladstones, 1974; Maissurjan and Atabiekova, 1974; Kazimierski and Kazimierska, 1975) made it possible to introduce essential corrections in the intra-specific taxonomic and eco-geographic classifications of lupins.
Each form of lupin can be assessed as an object fitting in with a number of consecutive taxa.
A taxon is a part of plant community consisting of a certain set of individual plants distinguished according to genetic principle by the uniformity of their genesis, and regarded as a formal unit at any level of hierarchic classification.

Different species, subspecies, varieties, subvarieties and forms were classified on the basis of Vavilov’s concepts (the law of homologous series in hereditary variation, studies on the problem of the species as a system, differential systematic and geographical method of crop studies, and others).

Vavilov’s (1931, 1965) concept about the species as a complex multilateral and mobile phenomenon implies application of diverse methods for identification of differences between intraspecific categories.

We recognize subspecies (subsp.) as an isolated group of individual plants within a population of a species. They occupy certain part of the area of a species, constitute together a mobile system, are able to cross among themselves and with plants growing in other parts of the area of this species, produce prolific progeny, possess distinctive morphological and inheritable characters in vegetative and generative organs with the uniform genetic base, and incorporate transient forms. (subsp. graecus, termis and albus within the limits of Lupinus albus L.).

Allelism and character complementarity tests have shown that in lupins the color of seed is correlated with the color of the corolla. This linkage reflects the stability of genetic system, which corresponds to the rank of varieties (var.).

A good diagnostic character is the color of vegetative parts, and the absence or presence of anthocyan, in particular. Being less stable, it could be used in identifying subvarieties (subvar.).

Considerable practical interest for breeders may be generated by the plants with determinate branching, fascicular stem and other characters of breeding value. Such forms are theoretically possible in all the varieties and subvarieties systematized by us. Therefore, it seems justified to regard them in the rank of forma (f.) - formae.

Boguslav S. Kurlovich


Our book about lupins: «Lupins: geography, classification, genetic resources and breeding» it is possible to read on the Internet here, and also here!

The Russian version of the book on - http://lupin-rus.blogspot.com/

Lupins as a potential crop in Finland - http://lupin-fin.blogspot.com/

Links to more Lupin info:
PLANTS Profile - Lupinus L. - lupine - http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LUPIN
Lupin - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lupinus
Search for: Lupinus L. - http://www.pfaf.org/database/search_name.php?ALLNAMES=Lupinus+L
Lupinus L. - http://www.itis.usda.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=25916
Lupinus albus L. -http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/nexus/Lupinus_albus_nex.html
L. angustifolius - http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?22805
Gasid is one of the first italian companies to care about the distribution of LUPIN, promoting the consumption of this product - http://www.lupinor.com/300/e301.htm

We are waiting to more links on a theme: Lupins !!!

video

Lupinus albus L. (White lupin)


L.albus L. 1753, Sp. Pl.:721; Willd. 1803, Sp.Pl. ed. 4, 3:1022; DC. 1825, Prodr. 2:407; Boiss. 1872, Fl. Or. 2:29; Willk. at Lange,1880, Prodr. Fl. Hisp.3:466; Halacsy, 1901, Consp. Fl. Graec. 1:341; Fiori, 1925, Nuov. Fl. Anal. Ital. 1:804; Zhukovsky, 1929, Bull.Appl. Bot. Gen. Pl-Breed., 21, 1:270, figs.13, 13a; Franco et Silva, 1968, in Fl. Europ. 2:105; Chamberlain in Davis, 1970, Fl. Turkey 3:38; Zohary, 1972, Fl. Palaest. 2:42; Gladstones, 1974, W. Austral. Dep. Agr. Techn. Bull. 26:5. – L. varius Gaertn. 1791, Fl. Fr. 2 : 324, tab.150, fig. 4, non L. 1753. – white lupin.

Typus: Herb. Linn. № 898 - 2 (LINN).

Figure - Lupinus albus L. (holotype).

It is annual, more or less pubescent plant, 30 - 120 cm high. Stems and petioles are sparsely sericeous. Stipules are subulate, concrescent with the petioles over 1/3 of their length. Leaflets (5 – 11) are oblong or obovate, glabrous above and villous below, margins ciliate. Their size is 20 - 60 x 10 - 20 mm. Colour of the corolla is white, grayish and light blue, less frequently pink blue, dark blue or violet blue. Lower flowers of the inflorescence are alternate. The lower lip of the calyx is lobed with 3 teeth, the upper one is entire. Pods are 70-160 x 10-20 mm, 3 - 6 seeded, seeds are square, compressed, white with a variable tinge of salmon pink, or dotted, dark brown. 2n = 50.
Widely spread as wild plants throughout Greece including islands, in Albania, on the islands of Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia, as well as in Israel, Palestine and Western Turkey (European and Western part of Asia Minor). Occurs in meadows, pastures, and grassy slopes, predominantly on sandy and acid soils. Cultivated over all the Mediterranean region and also in Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Syria, Central and Western Europe, USA and South America, Tropical and Southern Africa, Russia, and Ukraine. The ancient culture of white lupin under the local name «hanchcoly» until recently existed in Western Georgia (Kurlovich, 1996). Easily turns wild, especially in the Mediterranean region. Lupinus albus L. has been selected as a type of genus Lupinus L.
The closest described neighbors of this species are L. graecus Boiss. et Sprun. and L. termis Forsk. The first is the wild plant on Balkan Peninsula; the second is grown in Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Ethiopia, Israel, Palestine and Syria. Information accumulated by scientists made it possible to revise and integrate the volumes of these species. All three species differ only in the colour and size of flowers and seeds (quantitative cha-racters). Cultivated forms of white lupin were introduced in agricultural practice long time ago, before the ancient times, on the place of present-time Greece (Gladstones, 1974; Майсурян, Атабекова, 1974). From Greece they spread throughout the Mediterranean region and elsewhere. To the south (Egypt, Libya, Palestine) mainly the forms with white seeds and pink-and-blue or light-pink flowers (L. termis) were spread, while westwards (Apennine Peninsula and farther) mostly the forms with white seeds and grayish-blue or white seeds (L.albus) dispersed. White lupin (L.albus) is still grown in Greece, where wild L.graecus is also spread. The absence of distinct specific characters makes it possible to consider all three species harbored within the limits of one species of Linnaeus (L. albus L). But the existence of geographical and physiological differentiation is sufficient to recognize them as having the rank of subspecies in L.albus L: subsp. albus, subsp. graecus (Boiss. et Sprun.) Franco et Silva and subsp. termis (Forsk.) Ponert.
Small species such as L. vavilovii Atab. et Maiss. and L. jugoslavicus Kazim. et Nowacki, recognized by some plant growers of the former USSR and Poland, are only nomenclature synonyms of Balkan subspecies graecus.

The scheme of classification of Lupinus albus L.

I. Subsp. graecus (Boiss. et Spun.) Franko et Silva
2. Subsp. termis (Forsk.) Ponert.
I. Var. abissinicus Libk.
2. Var. subroseus Libk.
3. Subsp. albus L.
3. Var. albus
4. Var.vavilovii (Atab.) Kurl. et Stankev.
5. Var vulgaris Libk.
I. f. libkindae Kurl. et Stankev.

Key to the subspecies of Lupinus albus L.

1. Rosettes are formed initially from the leaves, stalks appear at the time of flowering. Corolla is dark-blue with a white centrobasal spot at the base of the vexillum. Pods are 60-80 x 11-14 mm, shattering at maturity; seed are 7-10 x 6-8 x 2-3 mm, dark brown, dotted, with impermeable testa. Native to Balkan Peninsula …………….. …………………………………………………1. Subsp. graecus

+ Rosette is lacking. The colour of the corolla is pink, blue, grayish, light blue or
white. Pods are 80-150 x 16-20 mm in size, indehiscent at maturity; seed are
pinkish white or white with permeable testa ………………………………. 2.

2. Plants are shaggy, sericeous. The inflorescence is stretched, crumbly. Flowers are pink or blue. The calyx is with a bract. Found in Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Ethiopia, Israel …………………………………………………………… 2. Subsp. termis

+ Plants are softly villous. The inflorescence is short, more or less compact. Flowers
are grayish, light blue or white. The calyx is without bract (it falls quickly).
Cultivated in the Mediterranean area, in Europe, North and South America, Asia ..
…………………………………………………………………… 3. Subsp. albus

1. Subsp. graecus (Boiss. et Sprun.) Franco et Silva, 1968, Feddes Repert. 79 :52; idem, 1968, in Fl. Europ. 2 : 105; Chamberlain in Davis, 1970, Fl. Turk. 3 :39. - L. graecus Boiss. et Sprun. 1843, Diagn. pl. or. nov. 2:15; Halacsy, 1901, l. c.:341. - L. jugoslavicus Kasimierski et Nowacki, 1961, Gen. Polon. 2:115. - L. vavilovii Atab. et Maiss. 1962, Изв. ТСХА, 44 (1):239. - L. albus var. graecus (Boiss. et Sprun.) Gladstones, 1974, l. c.: 7.

Typpus: In cultis Graeciae, inter Spartam et Mistra, E. Boisser et W. Spruner, April 1842 (G).

Two- to four-year plant in the nature and annual in culture. It is a direct wild ancestor of white lupin. This subspecies is spread in Greece, on Crete and other Aegean islands, in Albania and western Turkey (Gladstones, 1974) and can also be found in Italy (Hammer et al., 1992).
It differs from other subspecies by having small diversity of forms.

2. Subsp. termis (Forsk.) Ponert, 1973, Feddes Rep. 83 (9 - 10) :619. - L. termis Forsk, 1775, Fl. Aegypt:131; Willd. 1803, l.c.:1023; Guss. 1828, Fl. Sic. Prodr. 2:397; Bertol. 1847, Fl. Ital. 7:411; Boiss. 1872, Fl. Or. 2:29; Post. 1896, Fl. Syr. Pal. Sin.:213; Halacsy, 1901, Fl. Graec. 1:341; Plitmann, 1966, Isr. Journ. Bot. 15:26. - L. albus var. termis (Forsk). Fiori, 1925; Nouv. Fl. Anal. Ital. 1:804; Hanelt, 1960, Lupinen 10, fig. 4, 12.

Typus : In Delta ad pagum Nedjel. Copiose in agris, an spontaneus, nesсio ( C? ).

Subsp. termis differs from the standard subspecies (subsp. albus) by earlier flowering, finer stems and smaller flowers and seed. The flowers have a different colour. The name of this subspecies takes place from the Greek term «thermos». In the Mediterranean countries it is usually called «turmus» (or alternative versions).
Spread and cultivated in Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Ethiopia and Israel. Easily turns wild. We have at our disposal accessions from Libya. Egypt and Ethiopia. Libkind (Либкинд, 1931) described it as varietas but she did not indicate any types.

1. Var. abissinicus Libk. 1931, Lupin: 59, sine typo. - Flowers pink-and-blue. Vegetative parts with anthocyan.
Neotypus: `B -5`, received from Belarus, k-2237, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 28.07.1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).
Distribution - the upper reaches of the Nile.
2. Var. subroseus Libk. 1931, l. c.: 59, sine typo. - Flowers light -pink. Vegetative parts green.
Neotypus: Libya, k-2094, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 28.08.1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).
Distribution - Libya, Egypt, Israel, Syria.

3. Subsp. albus. Distinctive features are thick meaty stalks, large leafs and seeds. The genepool of subsp. albus has wide variations in physiological properties of plants. Cultivated in many countries of Europe, Asia and America.

3. Var. albus. Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, Bull. Appl. Bot. Gen. Pl.-Breed., Leningrad, 135:33. - Flowers white, carina`s edge without anthocyan.
We put the accession `Mutant 47` down to this varietas.
4. Var. vavilovii Kurl.et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:33. - Flowers white, carina`s edge with anthocyan.
Typus: `Bialy - 1`, Poland, k-1602, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 9.08.1986, A.K. Stankevich (WIR).
5. Var. vulgaris Libk. 1931, l. c.: 59, sine typo. - Flowers grayish-blue, carina`s edge with anthocyan.
Neotypes: `Kievsky mutant`, Ukraine, k-1904, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 9.08.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
This varietas is the most spread.
1. f. libkindae Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:33. - Side shoots absent or shortened. Flowers axillary.
Typus: `EP-1`, Poland, k-2890, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 24.08.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).

Links to more Lupinus albus L. info:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Lupinus+albus http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/nexus/Lupinus_albus_nex.html

Lupinus angustifolius L. (Narrow-leafed lupin)


L.angustifolius L. 1753, Sp. Pl:721; Willd. 1803, l. c.:1024; DC. 1825, l. c.:407; Boiss. 1872, l. c.:28; Willk. et Lange, 1880, l. c.:466; Halacsy, 1901, l. c.:340; Aschers. et Graebn. 1907, Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 6 (2):231; Fiori, 1925, l. c.:804; Plitmann, 1966, Israel J. Bot. 15:26; Chamberlain in Davis, 1970, l. c.:39; Zohary, 1972, l. c.:43, t. 57; Gladstones, 1974, l. c.:9; Vass. 1987, in Fl. Part. Eur. URSS, 6:214. – L. linifolius Roth, 1787, Bot. Abh. 14, t. 5. - L. reticulatus Desv. 1835, Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2,3:100. - L. leucospermus Boiss. 1849, Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 9:8. - L. philistaeus Boiss. 1849, l.c.: 9. – L. angustifolius var. sativus et var. spontaneus Libk. 1931, Lupinus :53. - L. opsianthus Atab. et Maiss., 1968, Bjull. Glav. Bot. Sad. Acad. Nauk SSSR. : 75. - L. angustifolius subsp. angustifolius et subsp. reticulatus (Desv). Franco et Silva, 1968, in Fl. Europ. 2:105. – narrow-leafed or blue lupin.

Typus: Herb. Linn. No 898-7 (LINN).

Fifure - Lupinus angustifolius L. (holotype).

Plants are 20-150 cm high. Stalks are sparsely sericeous, with numerous lateral branches. Leaves are developed from 5-9 linear-lanceolate or narrow-linear leaflets, 20-40 х 2,5 mm in size, the upper surface is glabrous, the lower surface is sericeous. Stipules are linear and linear-lanceolate. The inflorescence is dense, almost sedentary, 5-20 cm long, placed on a short floral pedicle. Flowers are 11-15 mm long, almost sedentary, lower flowers are alternate, upper ones more or less subverticilate inside. Floral bracts are small-sized, easily falling. The calyx is bilabiate, profoundly bipartite, the lower lip is longer, entire or irregularly two- or three-toothed. The corolla is blue, violet, less frequently pink and white. Pods are 35-50 х 7-10 mm in size, oblong, slightly inflated, 4- or 7-seeded, with oblique partitions between seeds. The seed is 4-8 х 3-7 х 3-6 mm, globular, with smooth testa, variously coloured, with a triangular spot and a stria close to the hilum. 2n = 40.
Occurs on meadows, among rocks, in bushes, on seaside sands and near reservoirs, along the roads and, as a weed, in the field. Tends to grow on well-ventilated soils. Widespread in all Mediterranean countries and also in Asia Minor, Transcaucasia and Iran. Naturalized in Southern Africa and Southwest Australia. Widely cultivated in Northern Europe (Germany, Holland, Poland, CIS), in the southeast part of USA and in New Zealand.
It is a rather polymorphic species. The variability of characters depends on eco-geographic conditions. Wild-growing races have, as a rule, narrow pods, smaller-sized leaflets and seeds as well as lower plant height. The size of seeds and their colouring vary on all area of growing. Large-seeded plants usually occur closer to arable soils, while small-seeded ones on inshore sands and slopes. The species is described using a large cultivated form. The colouring of seeds varies from dark grey (almost black) with light spots and specks of miscellaneous size, grayish brown and brown up to light grey and white. Usually seeds with coloured testa correlate with cyan and pink flowers. In these two characters (traits) homologous variability is observed. Unpigmented (white) seeds are typical for white-flowered and lilac plants. These combinations of characters do not demonstrate any geographic arrangement. There is no abrupt gap between cultivated and wild forms. On the contrary, transition between them appears very smooth. Therefore there is nothing to justify the existence of two species (L. linifolius Roth. and L. opsianthus Atab. et Mais.) and also two subspecies (subsp. angustifolius and subsp. reticulatus (Desv.) Franko et Silva.) differing only on in the width of leaflets and the size of seeds (quantitative characters). In our opinion, it would be more correct to subdivide this species in a different way.
Using the developed criteria of intraspecific taxa, the spreading of VIR’s blue lupin collection disclosed 13 varieties of L. angustifolius L. distinctly differing from each other by the colour of seeds and the corolla.
Variations in the colour of cotyledons, vegetative parts and carina have been used for identification of 12 subvarieties.
Besides, the plants with determined branching and fascicular stems are described as 8 separate forms.

The scheme of classification of Lupinus angustifolius L.

I. Var. angustifolius
I. Subvar. angustifolius
1. f. angustifolius
2. Subvar. viridulus Kurl. et Stankev.
2. Var. albopunctatus Kurl. et Stankev.
3. Var. griseomaculatus Kurl. et Stankev.
2. f. belorussicus Kurl. et Stankev.
4. Var. chalybens Kurl. et Stankev.
5. Var. corylinus Kurl. et Stankev.
3. f. zhukovskii Kurl. et Stankev.
6. Var. purpureus Kurl. et Stankev.
3. Subvar. purpureus
4. f. deramosus Taran. et Busch.
4. Subvar. rhodanthus Kurl. et Stankev.
7. var. rubidus Kurl. et Stankev.
5. Subvar. rubidus
6. Subvar. maissuriani (Atab.) Kurl. et Stankev.
5. f. epigonalus Taran. et Busch.
8. Var. atabekovae Kurl. et Stankev.
9. Var. sparsiusculus Kurl. et Stankev.
10. Var. brunneus Kurl. et Stankev.
11. Var. albosyringeus Taran.
7. Subvar. albisyringeus
6. f. kloczkovii Kurl. et Stankev.
7. f. confertus Kloczko et Kurl.
8. Subvar. polonicus Kurl. et Stankev.
9. Subvar. lilacinus Kurl. et Stankev.
12. Var. albidus Kurl. et Stankev.
8. f. kuptzovii Kurl. et Stankev.
13. Var. candidus Kuptzov. et Kurl.
10. Subvar. candidus
11. Subvar. virescens Kuptzov. et Kurl.
12. Subvar. violaceus Kuptzov. et Kurl.

1. Var. angustifolius, 1990. Bull. Appl. Bot. Gen. Pl.-Breed., Leningrad, 135:23. - L.angustifolius var. coeruleus Asch. et Graebn. ex Atab. 1962, Lupinus: 129, nom. illeg. - Flowers blue. Seed motley, gray with unclear spotting.
1. Subvar. angustifolius. - Cotyledons and the carina`s edge anthocyan - coloured.
We do not know, what kind of seed had C. Linnaeus in the disposal, but we think, that most likely described by him accessions was represented by domesticated example. It is possible to consider cv. Benyakonsky 484 (k-1457) from collection of VIR as typical accessions of this taxon.
1. f. angustifolius. - Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillary.
Typus: ‘Mut-1’, Poland, k-2803, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 12.7.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
2. Subvar. viridulus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l.c.:24. - L.angustifolius var. subcoeruleus Sypn. ex Atab. 1962, l. c.:129, nom. illeg. - Cotyledons and the carina`s edge green.
Typus: Poland, k-334, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 14.7.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
2. Var. albopunctatus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l.c.:24. - L.angustifolius var. maculatus Atab. l. c.:129, nom. illeg. - Flowers blue. Seed almost black with tiny white dots and spots.
Typus: ‘Benyakonsky 335 ’, Belarus, k-1477, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 10.7.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
3. Var. griseomaculatus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:24. - L.angustifolius var. subalbidus Sypn. ex Atab. 1962, l. c.:129, nom. illeg. - Flowers blue. Seed gray with white spots.
Typus: Belarus, k-3148, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 14.8.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
2. f. belorussicus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:24. - Side shoots shortened, flowers axillary.
Typus: ‘Першацвет’, Belarus, k-2955, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 7.7.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
4. Var. chalybeus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:24. - Flowers blue. Seed white with sparse dark-brown and gray spots.
Typus: ‘Frost’, USA, k-2258, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 21.7.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
5. Var. corylinus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:24. - Flowers blue. Seed beige with browm spots.
Typus: ‘Apendrilon’, Greece, k-2666, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 20.7.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
3. f. zhukovskii Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:24. - Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillary.
Typus: ‘Line AT - Д-2-Т/5’, Belarus, k-2837, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 14.8.1986, A.K. Stankevich (WIR).
6. Var. purpureus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:24. - L.angustifolius var. roseus Semp. ex Atab. 1962. l.c.: 129, nom. illeg. - Flowers pink. Seed motley or gray with unclear spotting. Is close to var. angustifolius (1).
3. Subvar. purpureus - Cotyledons anthocyan - coloured, vegetative parts dark-violet.
Typus: ‘Borre’, Sweden, k-1593, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 21.7.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
4. f. deramosus Taran. et Busch. f.nova - Rami laterallii nullum esse vel valde abbreviati. Flores axillaria.
Typus: Belarus, k- 3527, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 14.8.2001, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).
Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillary.
4. Subvar. rhodanthus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:25. - Cotyledons and vegetative parts green.
Typus: Poland, k-1341, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 19.8.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
7. Var. rubidus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:25. - L.angustifolius var. lastowski Atab. 1962, l. c.:129, nom. illeg. - Flowers pink. Seed almost black with tiny white dots and spots. It is close to var.albopunctatus (2).
5. Subvar. rubidus. - Cotyledons anthocyan-coloured, vegetative parts dark-green.
Typus: ‘Вада-18’, Belarus, k –2679, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 18.7.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
6. Subvar. maissurianii Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:25. – L. angustifolius var. maissurianii Atab. 1962, l. c.:129, nom. illeg. - Cotyledons and vegetative parts anthocyan-coloured.
Typus: ‘Northern - 3’, Moscow province, k- 1712, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 17.7.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
5. f. epigonalus Taran. et Busch. f.nova - Rami laterallii nullum esse vel valde abbreviati. Flores axillaria.
Typus: Belarus, k- 3528, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 14.8.2001, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).
Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillary.
8. Var. atabekovae Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:25. - Flowers pink. Seed with white spots. It is close to var.griseomaculatus (3).
Typus: ‘Гюльцовский’, Germany, k -1498, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 28.7.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
9. Var. sparsiusculus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:25. - Flowers pink. Seed white with sparse dark-brown and gray spots. It is close to var. chalybeus (4).
Typus: ‘Лаф-рбс/2’, Belarus, k-2831, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 20.7.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
10. Var. brunneus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:25. - Flowers pink. Seed beige with brown spots. It is close to var. corylinus (5).
Typus: ‘Mirela’, Poland, k-2570, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 5.7.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
11. Var. albosyringeus Taran. ex Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:26. - Flowers pale-violet. Seed white, dull at the scar, without a triangular spot or strip.
7. Subvar. albosyringeus. - Cotyledons without anthocyan, vegetative parts dark-green.
Typus: ‘ Немчиновский 846 ’, Moscow province, k-1981, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 6.7.1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
6. f. kloczkovii Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:26. - Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillary.
Typus: ‘Ладный’, Moscow province, k-2648, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 2.8. 1986, A.K. Stankevich (WIR).
7. f. confertus Kloczko et Kurl. 1990, Bull. VIR, 206:82. - Stem fascicular. Flowers, pods and side shoots clustered at the top of the stem.
Typus: ‘5M2-253’, ТСХА, k - 2979, reproduction of Timiryazev Agricultural Academy in Moscow, 10.7.1990, N.A. Klochko and N.F. Anikeeva (WIR).
8. Subvar. polonicus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, Bull. Appl. Bot. Gen. Pl.-Breed., Leningrad, 135:26. - Cotyledons and vegetative parts anthocyan – coloured.
Typus: ‘ Muzin bialy ’, Poland, k-1851, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 25.7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
9. Subvar. lilacinus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:26. - Cotyledons and vegetative parts light-green.
Typus: ‘Тимир-1’, Moscow province, k-2664, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 20.7. 1989, , B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
12. Var. albidus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l.c.:26. - L.angustifolius var. leucanthus Harz. ex Atab. 1962, l. c.:129, nom. illeg. - Flowers white. Seed white with sparse brown spots.
Typus: ‘Unicrop’, Australia, k-2096, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 5. 8. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
8. f. kuptzovii Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:26. - Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillary.
Typus: ‘Ланедекс-1’, Belarus, k-2687, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 3. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
13. Var. candidus Kuptzov et Kurl. 1990, Bull. Appl. Bot. Gen. Pl.-Breed.,
Leningrad, 135:26. - L.angustifolius var. albescens Atab. 1962, l. c.:129, nom. illeg. - Flowers white. Seed sheen-white, glossy.
10. Subvar. candidus. - Cotyledons and and vegetative parts without anthocyan.
Typus: ‘ЗЛНР-2’, Belarus, k-3184, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 19. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
11. Subvar. virescens Kuptzov et Kurl. 1990, l. c.:26. - Cotyledons anthocyan –coloured. Vegetative parts without anthocyan.
Typus: ‘DM - green’, Belarus, k-2972, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 19. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
12. Subvar. violaceus Kuptzov et Kurl. 1990, l. c.:27. - Cotyledons and vegetative parts anthocyan - coloured.
Typus: ‘DM - anthocyaned’, Belarus, k-2971, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 19. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).

The quantity of new intraspecific taxa of Lupinus angustigolius L., and specially its subvarietas and forms, can be greater in the process of further investigation of its intraspecific diversity.

Links to more Lupinus angustifolius L. info:

http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Lupinus+angustifolius
http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?22805
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LUAN4http://www.ildis.org/LegumeWeb/6.00/taxa/5821.shtml

Thursday, August 03, 2006

Lupinus luteus L. (Yellow lupin)


L. luteus L. 1753, Sp. Pl. :722; Willd. 1803, l. c.:1024; DC. 1825, l.c.:407; Willk. et Lange, 1880, l. c.:468; Franco et Silva, 1968, l. c.:105; Zohary, 1972, l. c.:44; Gladstones, 1974, l. c.:17; Vass. 1987, l. c.:214. – yellow lupin.
Typus: Herb. Linn. No 898-8 (LINN).
Protologus: « In Siciliae arenosis ».

Figure - Lupinus luteus L. (holotype).

Plants are 20-80 cm high, rosetted in the beginning and becoming erect in subsequent, with vigorous basal branching. Stems are short and hirsute, with intesive branching in the lower part. The leaf consists of 7-9 (11) ovate-oblong or lanceolate leaflets, prolated at the basis, densely villous on both sides, sized 30-60 х 8-15 mm. Stipules of the rosetted leaves are crescent and chuffy on stalks, linear-obovate in shape. The inflorescence is an elongated truss, 5-25 cm long, set on a peduncle of 5-12 cm. Flowers are verticillate, odorous. Floral bracts are small-sized, obovate, silky-pubescent, easily falling. The upper labium of a calyx is bipartite, the lower one has 3 small denticles. The corolla is 14-16 mm long, bright goldish-yellow in color. Pods are elongated, 40-60 х 10-14 mm, densely villous, 4-6-seeded, with oblique partitions between seeds. Seeds are 5,5-6,5 mm in diameter, spherical-reniform, oblate, variable colouring - from pinkish, brown and yellowish up to dark-violet and mottled. 2n=52 .
Occurs on mild sandy and volcanic soils in mining belts. As a wild plant, it is widespread over the coastal area in the western part of Iberian Peninsula, Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria, on the islands of Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily and in southern Italy. In Israel and Lebanon it has most likely turned wild. It is cultivated in Northern Europe and CIS (Belarus and Ukraine) as well as, on a smaller scale, in Western Australia and South Africa. Having previously been cultivated in southern France and on Madeira, it has turned wild there.
Usually this species is considered as an annual one, but in wild environments it is sometimes possible to find two- and four-year plants. The variability of characters in this species is less expressed than in L.angustifolius; however a homologous series can be modeled on the color of seeds, which is more or less similar to L. angustifolius. Dominating coloring of flowers is yellow or, less frequently, lemon-yellow, orange and whitish.

Using combinations of such characters as the color of the corolla, the carina`s edge, vegetative organs and seeds, 18 varieties, 4 subvarieties and 6 forms have been identified.

The scheme of classification of Lupinus luteus L.

I. Var. luteusI. f. volovnenkoae Kurl. et Stankev.
2. f. compactus Kazim. et Kaz.
2. Var. maculosus Kurl. et Stankev.
3. Var. kazimierskii Kurl. et Stankev.
4. Var. arcellus Kurl. et Stankev.
5. Var. sempolovskii (Atab.) Kurl. et Stankev.
6. Var. melanospermus Kurl. et Stankev.
7. Var. niger Kurl. et Stankev.
8. Var. cremeus Kurl. et Stankev.
9. Var. leucospermus Kurl. et Stankev.
I. Subvar. leucospermus3. f. ucrainicus Kurl. et Stankev.
2. Subvar. taranuchoi Kurl. et Stankev.
10. Var. citrinus Kurl. et Stankev.
4. f. lukasheviczii Kurl. et Stankev.
11. Var. sulphureus (Atab.) Kurl. et Stankev.
12. Var. stepanovae Kurl. et Stankev.
13. Var. ochroleucus Kurl. et Stankev.
3. Subvar. ochroleucus4. Subvar. chloroticus Kurl. et Stankev.
5. f. bernatzkayae Kurl. et Stankev.
14. Var. aurantiacus Kurl. et Stankev.
15. Var. croceus Kurl. et Stankev.
16. Var aureus Kurl. et Stankev.
6. f. golovczenkoi Kurl. et Stankev.
17. Var. albicans Kurl. et Stankev.
18. Var. sinskayae Kurl. et Stankev.

1. Var. luteus, 1990. Bull. Appl. Bot. Gen. Pl.-Breed., Leningrad, 135:28. - L. luteus var. maculatus Zhuk. ex Atab. 1962, Lupinus: 151, nom. illeg. - Flowers yellow. Seed white with black dots without arcs (doted).Typical representative accession of this varietas is cv. Academichesky 1 (k-1947).
1. f. volovnenkoae Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:28. - Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillary.Typus: ´Искорость´, Ukraine, k-2437, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 6. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
2. f. compactus Kazim. et Kaz. f. nova. – Flores et leguminis laterali apice
conferta.
Typus: ´Compactus´, Poland, reproduction of Institute of Plant Genetic, Polish Academy of Science, 10.08.1995, T. Kazimierski (WIR).
Flowers and pods clustered at the top of the stem.
2. Var. maculosus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:28. – Flowers yellow. Seed white with black spots and two light arcs.Typus: ‘ Afus’, Poland, k-2106, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 28. 7. 1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).
3. Var. kazimierskii Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:28. – Flowers yellow. Seed white with brown spots without arcs.Typus: ‘И - 511562’, Israel, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 28. 7. 1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).
4. Var. arcellus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:28. – Flowers yellow. Seed white with brown spots and two dark arcs.Typus: ‘И - 511504’, (Popularion B 469/79), Spain, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 7. 8. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
5. Var. sempolovskii Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:28. – L. luteus var. sempolovski Atab. 1962, l. c.:151, nom. illeg. - Flovers yellow. Seed white with black spots and wide clear space round the scar.Typus: ‘Полуцкий’, Poland, k-2399, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 27. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
6. Var. melanospermus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - L. luteus var. melanospermus Körn. ex Atab. 1962, l. c.:151, nom.illeg. - Flower yellow. Seed brown-and-black with light arcs.Typus: ‘Schwako’, Hungary, k-1835, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 18. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
7. Var. niger Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - Flowers yellow. Seed black, without arcs.Typus: ‘Копыловский’, Ukraine, k-2601, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 8. 9. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
8. Var. cremeus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - Flowers yellow. Seed cream with white arcs.
Typus: ‘ Müncheberger Süsslupine ’, Germany, k-1653, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 10. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
9. Var. leucospermus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - L. luteus var. leucospermus Körn. ex Atab. 1962, l. c.:151, nom.illeg. - Flowers yellow. Seed white.1. Subvar. leucospermus. - Carina`s edge without anthocyan.Typus: ‘Weiko’, Germany, k-1310, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 20. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
3. f.ucrainicus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - L. luteus var. leucospermus Köern. subvar. deramosum Taran. 1980, Cел. и сем. люп.:34, nom. illeg. - Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillary.Typus: ‘Юбилейный’, Ukraine, k-1935, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 28. 9. 1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).
2. Subvar. taranuchoi Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - L. luteus var. leucimelanus Taran. 1980, Cел. и сем. люп.:34, nom. illeg. - Carina`s edge with anthocyan.Typus: ‘Горецкий’, Belarus, k-2169, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 9. 8. 1986, A.K. Stankevich (WIR).
10. Var. citrinus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - Flowers lemon-yellow. Seed white with black dots without arcs (doted).Typus: ‘ БСХА-287 ’, Belatus, k-2738, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 16. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
4. f. lukasheviczii Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillaryTypus: ‘Cyt x Plammenny287 ’, Belatus, k-2829, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 20. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
11. Var. sulphureus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30. - L. luteus var. sulphureus Atab. 1962, l. c.:151, nom. illeg. - Flowers lemon-yellow. Seed white with black spots and two light arcs.Typus: ‘ № 12099 ’, Germany, k-2556, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 9. 8. 1986, A.K. Stankevich (WIR).
12. Var. stepanivae Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30. - Flowers lemon-yellow. Seed creme-coloured with two white arcs.Typus: ‘WTD-6049’, Poland, to - 2585, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 21. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
13. Var. ochroleucus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30. - Flowers lemon-yellow. Seed white.
3. Subvar. ochroleucus. - Carina`s edge with anthocyan.Typus: ‘Припять’, Belarus, k-2652, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 9. 8. 1986, A.K. Stankevich (WIR).
4. Subvar. chloroticus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30. - Carina`s edge without anthocyan.Typus: ‘Салатный’, Ukraine, k-2156, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 9. 8. 1986, A.K. Stankevich (WIR).
5. f. bernatzkayae Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30. - Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillary.Typus: ‘Лимонный’, Ukraine, k- 2153, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 9. 8. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
14. Var. auranticus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30. - Flowers orange. Seed white with black dots without arcs.Typus: Belarus, Minsk province, k-2476, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 19. 7. 1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).
15. Var. croceus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l .c.:30. - Flowers orange. Seed white with black dots and light arcs.Typus: Belarus, Minsk province, k-2823, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 24. 9. 1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).
16. Var. aureus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30. - Flowers orange. Seed white.Typus: Poland, k-3135, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 20. 8. 1990, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
6. f. golovczenkoi Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30-31. - Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillary.Typus: ‘Пламенный’, Ukraine, k-2155, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 20. 8. 1990, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).
17. Var. albicans Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:31. - Flowers whitish. Seed white with black spots and two light arcs.Typus: ‘ Белоцветковый Т ’, Belarus, k-2973, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 21. 7. 1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).
18. Var. sinskayae Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l .c.:31. - Flowers whitish. Seed white.
Typus: ‘ Белоцветковый C ’, Belarus, k-2974, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 20. 9. 1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).

The quantity of new intraspecific taxa of Lupinus luteus L., and specially its subvarietas and forms, can be greater in the process of additional investigation.

Links to more Lupinus luteus L. info:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Lupinus+luteus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lupinus_luteus
http://www.itis.usda.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=503584

REFERENCES







REFERENCES

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